Quarkus H2 Example: Building a Microservice with Quarkus and H2 Database

Table of contents
  1. What is Quarkus?
  2. What is an H2 Database?
  3. Building a Microservice with Quarkus and H2 Database
  4. Frequently Asked Questions
  5. Conclusion

In this article, we will explore a practical example of using Quarkus with an H2 database to build a microservice. Quarkus is a Java framework designed for the cloud-native, serverless, and Kubernetes environments. It offers a fast boot time and low memory footprint, making it an excellent choice for microservices development. H2 is an open-source, in-memory, and pure Java database that is often used for development and testing purposes.

Before diving into the example, let's understand the basic concepts of Quarkus and H2 database.

What is Quarkus?

Quarkus is a Kubernetes Native Java stack tailored for OpenJDK HotSpot and GraalVM, crafted from the best of breed Java libraries and standards. It provides an effective solution for developing microservices and deploying them in the cloud-native environment. Quarkus offers a reactive programming model, an imperative and declarative REST client, and a unified configuration system, among other features.

Key Features of Quarkus:

  1. Native executable generation with GraalVM
  2. Live coding for a quick feedback loop during development
  3. Support for imperative and reactive programming models
  4. Unified configuration system
  5. Extensions for RESTEasy, Hibernate ORM, Apache Kafka, and more

What is an H2 Database?

H2 is a relational database management system written in Java. It can be embedded in Java applications or run in client-server mode. H2 provides support for in-memory databases as well as disk-based databases and offers a rich set of SQL commands. It is commonly used for development, testing, and prototyping due to its fast performance and small footprint.

Key Features of H2 Database:

  1. Pure Java implementation
  2. In-memory and persistent database support
  3. Full support for standard SQL commands
  4. Small footprint and high performance
  5. Easy to integrate with Java applications

Building a Microservice with Quarkus and H2 Database

Now that we have a basic understanding of Quarkus and H2 database, let's walk through an example of building a simple microservice using Quarkus and integrating it with an H2 database.

Step 1: Setting Up the Development Environment

Before getting started, make sure you have the following tools and dependencies installed:

  • Java Development Kit (JDK) 8 or later
  • Maven build tool
  • Quarkus framework
  • Integrated Development Environment (IDE) such as IntelliJ IDEA or Eclipse

Step 2: Creating a New Quarkus Project

Use the following Maven command to create a new Quarkus project:

mvn io.quarkus:quarkus-maven-plugin:1.13.7.Final:create

This command creates a new Quarkus project with the necessary dependencies, including the H2 extension for database support.

Step 3: Defining the Entity and Repository

Create a new Java class for the entity (e.g., Book) and a corresponding repository interface. Annotate the entity class with @Entity and define the necessary fields and relationships.

@Table(name = "books")
public class Book {

@GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
private Long id;

private String title;
private String author;

// Getters and setters

Create a repository interface for the Book entity, extending PanacheRepository or JpaRepository based on your preference.

public interface BookRepository extends PanacheRepository {

List findByAuthor(String author);

Step 4: Implementing the RESTful Service

Create a new resource class to define the REST endpoints for the microservice. Inject the BookRepository and implement the necessary methods for CRUD operations.

public class BookResource {

BookRepository bookRepository;

public List listAll() {
return bookRepository.listAll();

public Book getSingle(@PathParam("id") Long id) {
return bookRepository.findById(id);

public Response create(Book book) {
return Response.status(Response.Status.CREATED).entity(book).build();

// Implement update and delete endpoints

Step 5: Configuring the H2 Database Connection

Quarkus provides a simple configuration mechanism using the application.properties file. Define the datasource properties for the H2 database in the application.properties file to establish the connection.


Step 6: Testing the Microservice

Run the Quarkus application using the Maven command mvn compile quarkus:dev and test the RESTful endpoints using tools like cURL, Postman, or any browser extensions for API testing.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q: Can Quarkus be used with other databases besides H2?

A: Yes, Quarkus supports a wide range of databases including PostgreSQL, MySQL, MongoDB, and more. It provides extensions to integrate with different databases seamlessly.

Q: Is H2 suitable for production deployments?

A: While H2 is commonly used for development and testing, it can be used in production environments with caution. It is essential to consider the specific use case and performance requirements before using H2 in production.

Q: Does Quarkus support reactive programming?

A: Yes, Quarkus provides support for reactive programming using various extensions and libraries that enable developers to build reactive microservices.


In this article, we have demonstrated how to build a microservice with Quarkus and integrate it with an H2 database. By leveraging the features of Quarkus and the capabilities of the H2 database, developers can create efficient and scalable microservices for cloud-native environments. As Quarkus continues to evolve and gain popularity in the Java community, its combination with H2 opens up new possibilities for modern microservices development.

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