Circular Argument Example: Understanding the Logical Fallacy

Table of contents
  1. What is a Circular Argument?
  2. Identifying and Avoiding Circular Arguments
  3. Frequently Asked Questions
  4. Reflection

Have you ever found yourself in a conversation where someone seems to be going around in circles, using the same point to prove their argument without offering any real evidence? This is a classic example of a circular argument, a logical fallacy that can be both frustrating and confusing. In this article, we will explore the concept of circular arguments, provide examples to illustrate this fallacy, and discuss how to identify and avoid it in your own reasoning.

Understanding logical fallacies is crucial for critical thinking and effective communication. By recognizing and avoiding circular arguments, you can strengthen your own arguments and engage in more productive discussions.

What is a Circular Argument?

A circular argument, also known as circular reasoning, occurs when the reasoner begins with what they are trying to end with. Simply put, the argument restates its conclusion as one of its premises, often in different words but with no additional support. This creates the illusion that the argument is providing evidence for a claim when it is actually just repeating the claim itself.

Circular arguments are inherently flawed because they do not offer any new information or evidence to support the conclusion. Instead, they rely on a self-referential loop, where the premise and the conclusion are essentially the same, leading to a logical dead end.

Examples of Circular Arguments

Let's explore some common examples of circular arguments to better understand how this fallacy manifests in real-life situations:

Example 1: The Bible is the Word of God because God tells us it is in the Bible.

In this example, the premise "The Bible is the Word of God" is simply restated as the conclusion, "because God tells us it is in the Bible." There is no external evidence or reasoning provided to support the initial claim.

Example 2: I am always right because I know best, and I know best because I am always right.

This circular argument creates a self-reinforcing loop, where the person claims to be right because they know best, and they know best because they are always right. There is no objective evidence or logical reasoning offered to support the assertion of always being right.

Example 3: Paranormal phenomena exist because there are unexplainable events, and these unexplainable events prove the existence of paranormal phenomena.

In this example, the argument uses unexplainable events to support the existence of paranormal phenomena without considering alternative explanations or empirical evidence. It relies on circular reasoning by using the unexplained nature of the events to reinforce the claim of paranormal phenomena.

Identifying and Avoiding Circular Arguments

Now that we have explored examples of circular arguments, it is important to know how to identify and avoid this fallacy in your own thinking and communication. Here are some tips for recognizing and addressing circular reasoning:

Examine the Structure of the Argument

When evaluating an argument, pay attention to whether the premises simply restate the conclusion in different words without providing any additional evidence. If the argument seems to rely on a self-referential loop, it may be a circular argument.

Seek External Evidence and Reasoning

Look for external evidence, logical reasoning, and supporting premises that lead to the conclusion. A strong argument should provide new information and sound reasoning to back up the conclusion, rather than simply repeating the claim itself.

Encourage Critical Thinking and Open Dialogue

In discussions and debates, encourage critical thinking and open dialogue by asking for evidence, questioning assumptions, and considering alternative viewpoints. By challenging circular arguments and promoting rational discourse, you can help avoid the pitfalls of circular reasoning.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the consequences of using circular arguments?

Using circular arguments can undermine the credibility of your reasoning and weaken the persuasiveness of your arguments. They can lead to a lack of meaningful debate and hinder the pursuit of truth and understanding.

Can circular arguments be intentional or unintentional?

Circular arguments can be both intentional, where the reasoner consciously employs circular reasoning to bolster their position, and unintentional, where the reasoner may not realize the fallacious nature of their argument. Regardless of intent, it is important to recognize and address circular reasoning.

How can I politely challenge a circular argument in a discussion?

You can challenge a circular argument by respectfully asking for additional evidence or reasoning to support the conclusion. Encourage logical reasoning and a willingness to consider alternative viewpoints to foster a more constructive and intellectually honest discussion.


Understanding the concept of circular arguments and being able to identify and address this fallacy is essential for sound reasoning and effective communication. By recognizing the pitfalls of circular reasoning, we can strive to engage in more logical, evidence-based discourse that leads to greater understanding and mutual respect.

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